Pagination in React with a Back-End API and react-router’s Hooks API

This post discusses implementing pagination in React with a back-end API that supports it, as well as using react-router’s hooks to manage the page URL.

A codesandbox with an example implementation is available at the following URL:

There are tons of examples and tutorials for React on the web that demonstrate paging/sorting/filtering on the client side. However, this is not always a good approach because the entire data set must be loaded from the back-end API for this approach to work. This is especially an issue with large data sets!

By handling paging/sorting/filtering on the server, the client is sent only the subset of data necessary to present to the user.

The example also covers an often-forgotten point that impacts UI/UX: the page URL should be updated whenever a user changes paging/sorts/filters. A given URL should generally correspond to a given “view” of the data. This ensures that users can directly link to URL’s, bookmark them, and that the browser’s back button works as expected.

Breaking the back button is a major issue found in a huge number of JavaScript-stack Single Page Apps (SPA’s)!

URL management is accomplished via use of the newer built-in URLSearchParams API plus the useLocation() and useHistory() hooks implemented by react-router-dom.

Note that the URLSearchParams API is widely supported by modern browsers including Microsoft Edge, but not IE, although there is a polyfill available.

The example code essentially uses the URL as a store of state: it stores the current page (page) and the number of results per page (limit) as URL search parameters.

Demo API

The API used for the example is the popular JSONPlaceholder API. This free public API features endpoints that return dummy data that developers can use to mock-up front-end apps.

JSONPlaceholder’s API supports adding _page and _limit parameters to requests that instruct the API to return a subset of data.

Code Walkthrough

Refer to the codesandbox.


In App.tsx we setup react-router v5.2 with a representative setup that uses the Router, Switch, and Route components.


In api.ts we implement a fetchData() function that wraps a call to the JavaScript fetch API and formats the response as a ResponseData object that’s defined as follows:

// data structure of items returned by the API
export interface DataItem {
  userId: number;
  id: number;
  title: string;
  completed: boolean;

// return type of the fetchData() function
export interface ResponseData {
  items: DataItem[];
  count: number;

The JSONPlaceholder API returns a total result count via an X-Total-Count response header. The fetchData() function includes this count as part of the ResponseData object that it returns.

Take note that the generateQueryString() helper function adds the preceding underscore character to the URL parameters as required by the JSONPlaceholder API.


In Paged.tsx we use the useLocation() and useHistory() hooks provided by the react-router-dom package to get the current URL search parameters (location via and set the updated URL (history via history.push()).

To keep the codesandbox example straightforward, I took advantage of the TablePagination component provided by Material UI rather than implement my own. It is important to note that the TablePagination component assumes a 0-based page number while the JSONPlaceholder API assumes a 1-based page number. This difference is accounted for in the code.

An advantage of using a library such as Material UI is that details such as keyboard navigation that improve usability and accessibility are implemented out-of-the-box so that you can focus on building your app.

The use of React’s useMemo() hook is important to prevent an infinite re-render loop. Otherwise, a new urlParams would be created on every render, and not just when changes.

When using the URLSearchParams API it is important to note that it only stores data as strings. You’ll note that explicit conversions are applied throughout for the numerical parameters page and limit. It is especially important to be aware of this if you are storing boolean values because the string “false” is truthy in JavaScript.

Data is fetched with the help of the the useAsync() hook provided by the react-async-hook package. This library helps avoid certain issues inherent to fetching asynchronous data. An excellent blog post by library author S├ębastien Lorber explains the motivation for creating this library: Handling API Request Race Conditions in React. Another great post that was inspired by Lorber’s is by Marcin Wanago: Race Conditions in React and Beyond: A Race Condition Guard with TypeScript.

As a design decision, I return the user to the first page if they change rowsPerPage. However, you may wish to implement something different.

Finally it is worth noting that I updated the tsconfig.json file vs. the current defaults for the React + TypeScript template on codesandbox. The entries “dom.iterable” and “esnext” have been added to the compilerOptions > lib array to support syntax such calling as Array.from() on an instance of URLSearchParams.

Hopefully this post and my example helps you implement usable pagination in React!